The role of participation in memorable tourism experience: a comparative case of cap go meh festival and linggarjati festival in Indonesia


  • Agus W Soehadi Universitas Prasetiya Mulya
  • Eka Ardianto Universitas Prasetiya Mulya



Memorable Tourism Experience, Festival, Participation, Immersion, Vivid Memory, Loyalty


The study aimed to analyze the role of participation in creating memorable tourism experience in Cap Go Meh festival and Linggarjati festival to create loyal visitors. This study used a questionnaire of 42 questions on 5-point Likert-scale ranged from one to five range (1 = strongly disagree up to 5= strongly agree) to the festival visitors after the event. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the structural model using regression analysis. It showed that the visitors have different motives to attend and take a part in the festival. The group socializationhas a positive effect on participation, which lead to immersion, then influences vivid memory and loyalty in Cap Go Meh  while novelty has a positive effect on participation in Lingarjati vestival, which lead to immersion, then influences vivid memory and loyalty. Practicaly, it implied that this study has the benefit for event manager to understand the visitors characteristics. Cap Go Meh festival can be higher in group socialization. Event manager should facilitate visitors to participate as a group on God Statue parade. In Linggarjati, the visitors gain the novelty of historical site and city history merge with the stage of angklung -traditional music instrument- colossal.


Abrahams, R. 1986. Ordinary and extraordinary experience. In Turner, V.W. and E.M. Bruner (Eds), The Anthropology of Experience. University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, IL : 45-72.

Agapito, D., P. Pinto, and J. Mendes. 2017. Tourists' memories, sensory impressions and loyalty: In loco and post-visit study in Southwest Portugal. Tourism Management 58: 108-118.

Ali, F., K. Hussain, and N.A. Ragavan. 2014. Memorable customer experience: Examining the effects of customers experience on memories and loyalty in Malaysian resort hotels. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 144: 273–279.

Ali, F., K. Ryu, and K. Hussain. 2016. Influence of experiences on memories, satisfaction and behavioral intentions: A study of creative tourism. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 33: 85–100.

Anderson, L., and M.A. Littrell. 1995. Souvenir-purchase behavior of women tourists. Annals of Tourism Research 22 (2): 328-348.

Arnould, E., and L. Price. 1993. River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research 20: 24-45.

Arnould, E.J., L. Price, and G.M. Zinkhan. 2002. Consumers. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

Awang, Z. 2015. SEM made simple: a gentle approach to learning structural Equation modelling. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Publication.

Baker, D.A., and J.L, Crompton. 2000. Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 785-804.

Barnes, S. J., J. Mattsson, and F. Sørensen. 2016. Remembered experiences and revisit intentions: A longitudinal study of safari park visitors. Tourism Management 57: 286–294.

Byrne, B. M. 1989. A primer of LISREL: Basic applications and programming for confirmatory factor analytic models. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Carù, A., and B. Cova. 2006. How to facilitate immersion in a consumption experience: appropriation operations and service elements. Journal of Consumer Behavior 5 (1): 4-14.

Chacko, H., and J. Schaffer J. 1993. The Evolution of a Festival Creole Christmas in New Orleans. Tourism Management 14 (6): 475-482.

Chandralal, L., and F. Valenzuela. 2013. Exploring memorable tourism experiences: Antecedents and behavioural outcomes. Journal of Economics, Business and Management 1(2): 177–181.

Chandralal, L. 2015. Memorable tourism experiences: Scale development. Contemporary Management Research 11 (3): 291-310.

Chandralal, L., and J. Rindfleish, F. Valenzuela. 2015. An application of travel blog narratives to explore memorable tourism experiences. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 20 (6): 680–693.

Chen, H., and I. Rahman. 2018. Cultural tourism: An analysis of engagement, cultural contact, memorable tourism experience and destination loyalty. Tourism Management Perspectives 26: 153–163.

Chen, J., and D. Gursoy. 2001. An investigation of tourists’ destination loyalty and preferences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 13(2):79-85.

Cohen, E. 1979. A phenomenology of tourism experiences. Sociology 13:179-201.

Cole, S.T., and S.F. Illum. 2006. Examining the Mediating Role of Festival Visitors Satisfaction in the Relationship between Service Quality and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Vacation Marketing 12(2): 160-173.

Crompton, J.L., and S.L. McKay. 1997. Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research 24 (2): 425-439.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1975. Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of Play in Work and Games. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., and R. Larson. 1984. Being Adolescent: Conflict and Growth in the Teenage Years. Basic Books, New York, NY.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience – Steps Toward Enhancing the Quality of Life. Harper Collins, New York, NY.

Dash, P. C., and M.N. Samantaray. 2018. Exploring determinants of a successful tourism experience – The Nabakalebara Event. International Journal of Event and Festival Management 9 (1): 104-119.

Denove, C., and J.D.P. Power. 2006. Satisfaction: How Every Great Company Listens to the Voice of the Customer. Portfolio/Penguin Group, New York, NY.

Dijkstra, K., and B. Kaup. 2005. Mechanisms of autobiographical memory retrieval in younger and older adults. Memory and Cognition 33(5):811–820.

Falk, J., and L.D. Dierking. 1990. The relationship between visitation frequency and long-term recollection. In Bitgood, S., A. Benefield, and D. Patterson (Eds.). Visitor studies: Theory, research and practice. Jacksonville, AL: Center for Social Design.

Frochot, I., S. Elliot, and D. Kreziak. 2017. Digging deep into the experience – flow and immersion patterns in a mountain holiday. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 11 (1):81-91.

Getz, D. 1991. Festivals special events and tourism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Getz, D. 2007. Event Studies: Theory, Research and Policy for Planned Events. Taylor and Francis, Oxford.

Gokce, O., and O. Culha. 2009. Satisfaction and loyalty of festival visitors. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 20 (2): 359-373.

Grant, D., and S. Paliwoda. 1998. Segmenting Alberta arts and festival consumers. Festival Management and Event Tourism 5: 207-220.

Gunter, B. G. 1987. The leisure experience: Selected properties. Journal of Leisure Research 19: 115-130.

Hair, J. F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, and R.E. Anderson. 2010. Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Hamond, N.R., and R. Fivush. 1991. Memories of Mickey Mouse: Young children recount their trip to Disneyworld. Cognitive Development 6(4): 433-48.

Hardesty, D. M., and W.O. Bearden. 2004. The use of expert judges in scale development: Implications for improving face validity of measures of unobservable constructs. Journal of Business Research 57(2):98-107.

Hu, L. T., and P.M. Bentler. 1999. Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation modelling 6(1): 1-55.

Hughes, H. 1996. Redefining cultural tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 23:707-709.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. 1980. Social psychology of leisure and recreation. W. C. Brown Company Publishers.

Kao, Y-F., L.S. Huang, and M.H. Yang. 2007. Effects of experiential elements on experiential satisfaction and loyalty intentions: a case study of the super basketball league in Taiwan. International Journal of Revenue Management 1 (1): 79-96.

Kerstetter, D., and M. Cho. 2004. Tourists' information search behavior: The role of prior knowledge and perceived credibility. Annals of Tourism Research 31(4): 961–985.

Kim, J.H. 2009. Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Dissertation of Philosophy in Leisure Behavior in the School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Indiana University.

Kim, J.H. 2010. Determining the factors affecting the memorable nature of travel experiences. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 27 (8): 780-796.

Kim, J.H., J.R.B. Ritchie, and W.S.V. Tung. 2010. The effect of memorable experience on behavioral intentions in tourism: A structural equation modeling approach. Tourism Analysis 15: 637–648.

Kim, J.H., J.R.B. Ritchie, and B. McCormick. 2012. Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Journal of Travel Research 51(1): 12–25.

Kim, J.H. 2013. A cross-cultural comparison of memorable tourism experiences of American and Taiwanese college students. Anatolia – An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 24(3): 337–351.

Kim, J.H. 2014. The antecedents of memorable tourism experiences: The development of a scale to measure the destination attributes associated with memorable experiences. Tourism Management 44: 34-45.

Kim, J.H., and J.R.B. Ritchie. 2014. Cross-cultural validation of a memorable tourism experience scale (MTES). Journal of Travel Research 53(3): 323–335.

Kline, R. B. 2005. Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilfors Press.

Larsen, S., and D. Jenssen. 2004. The school trip: travelling with, not to or from. Scandinavian Journal of Tourism Research 4: 43-57.

Lehto, X.Y., J.T. O’Leary, and A.M. Morrison. 2004. The effects of prior experience on vacation behavior. Annals of Tourism Research 31 (4): 801-818.

López, V.N., and M.R. Molina. 2013. Eventâ€brand transfer in an entertainment service: experiential marketing. Industrial Management and Data Systems 113 (5): 712-731.

Manthiou, A., S. Lee, L. Tang, and L. Chiang. 2014. The experience economy approach to festival marketing: vivid memory and attendee loyalty. Journal of Service Marketing 28 (1): 22-35.

Manthiou, A., J. Kang, and L. Chiang. 2016. Investigating the effects of memorable experiences: An extended model of script theory. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 33: 362–379.

Marconi, J. 2005. Creating the Marketing Experience: New Strategies for Building Relationships with Your Target Market. Thomson Higher Education, Mason, OH.

Morgan, M. 2006. Making space for experiences. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 5(4): 305-13.

Morgan, M. 2009. What makes a good festival? Understanding the event experience. Event Management 12 (2): 81-93.

Morgan, M., and F. Xu. 2009. Student travel experiences: memories and dreams. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management 18 (2): 216-236.

Neuhofer, B., D. Buhalis, and A. Ladkin. 2012. Conceptualizing technology enhanced destination experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management 1: 36–46.

Neuhofer, B., D. Buhalis, and A. Ladkin. 2014. A typology of technology-enhanced tourism experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research 16(4): 340–350.

Neuhofer, B., D. Buhalis, and A. Ladkin. 2015. Smart technologies for personalized experiences: A case study in the hospitality domain. Electronic Markets 25(3): 243–254.

Pillemer, D.B., P.Wink, T.E. DiDonato, and R.L. Sanborn. 2003. Gender differences in autobiographical memory styles of older adults. Memory 11(6): 525-532.

Pine, B.J., and J.H. Gilmore. 1998. The experience economy: work is theatre and every business a stage. Harvard Business Review, July/August: 97-105.

Pine, B.J., and J.H.Gilmore. 1999. The Experience Economy: Work is a Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

Pizam, A. 2010. Creating memorable experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management 29(3) 343-546.

Prentice, R., and V. Andersen. 2003. Festival as creative destination. Annals of Tourism Research 30 (1): 7-30.

Quadri-Felitti, D. L., and A.M. Fiore. 2013. Destination loyalty: Effects of wine tourists' experiences, memories, and satisfaction on intentions. Tourism and Hospitality Research 13(1): 47–62.

Raj, R., P. Walters, and T. Rashid. 2013. Events management: principles and practice (2nd ed.). Sage publications.

Rao, V. 2001. Celebrations as social investments: Festival expenditures, unit price variation and social status in rural India. The Journal of Development Studies 38(1): 71-97.

Ritchie, J.R.B. and R.J.B. Ritchie. 1998. The Branding of Tourism Destinations: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. Keynote address, Annual Congress of the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism (AIEST), September 1998, Marrakesh, Morocco: 89-116.

Ritchie, J.R.B. and S. Hudson. 2009. Understanding and meeting the challenges of consumer/tourist experience research. International Journal of Tourism Research 11 (2):111-126.

Ritchie, J.R.B., V.W.S. Tung, and R.J.B. Ritchie. 2010. Tourism experience management research: Emergence, evolution, and future directions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 23 (4): 419-438.

Schmitt, B.H. 1999. Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brands. The Free Press, New York, NY.

Semrad, K. J., and M. Rivera. 2017. Advancing the 5E's in festival experience for the Gen Y framework in the context of eWOM. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management. in press.

Sistenich, F. 1999. Eventmarketing: Ein innovatives Instrument zur Metakommunikation in Unternehmen, Doctoral Thesis at Technische Universität Chemnitz, Wiesbaden, DUV.

Slåtten, T., C. Krogh, and S. Connolley. 2011. Make it memorable: customer experiences in winter amusement parks. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 5 (1): 80-91.

Sthapit, E., and D.N. Coudounaris. 2018. Memorable tourism experiences: antecedents and outcomes, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 18(1), 72-94. DOI: 10.1080/15022250.2017.1287003

Su, C. J., A.M. Lebrun, P. Bouchet, J.R. Wang, N. Lorgnier, and J.H. Yang. 2015. Tourists’ participation and preference-related belief in co-creating value of experience: a nature-based perspective. Service Business 10:823- 846.

The Canadian Tourism Commission. 2004. Defining tomorrow’s tourism product: Packaging experiences. Ottawa: Canadian Tourism Commission.

Torres, E. N. 2016. Guest interactions and the formation of memorable experiences: An ethnography. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 28(10): 2132–2155.

Tsai, C.T. S. 2016. Memorable tourist experiences and place attachment when consuming local food, International Journal of Tourism Research 18(6): 536–548.

Tung, V. W. S. 2009. Exploring the essence of a memorable travel experience. Library and Achieves Canada, ISBN: 978-0-494-49722-7.

Tung, V. W. S., and J.R.B. Ritchie. 2011a. Exploring the essence of memorable tourist experiences. Annals of Tourism Research 38(4): 1367–1386.

Tung, V. W. S., and J.R.B. Ritchie. 2011b.Investigating the memorable experiences of the senior travel market: an examination of the reminiscence bump. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 28 (3): 331-343.

Wirtz, D., J. Kruger, C.N. Scollon, and E. Diener. 2003. What to do on spring break? The role of predicted, online, and remembered experience in future choice. Psychological Science 14: 520-524.

Worthington, R. L., and T.A. Whittaker. 2006. Scale development research: A content analysis and recommendations for best practices. The Counselling Psychologist 34(6): 806-838.

Yadav, J. K., and O. Krishnan. 2017. Memorable tourism experiences: Vivid memories and feelings of nostalgia for houseboat tourism. Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode. IIMK/WPS/232/MM/2017/16.

Zhang, H., Y. Wub, and D. Buhalis. 2018. A model of perceived image, memorable tourism experiences and revisit intention. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management 8: 326–336.


Sakuningannews. 2015.Festival seribu angklung. Sakuningan News, November, 14, 2015. Blogspot. Retrieved in 2018, April 30 from

Helabumi, Raditya.2015. Cap Go Meh di Bogor, Sebuah Pesta untuk Semua. Kompas. March, 5, 2015. Retrieved in 2018, April 30 from Albanese, A 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, viewed 30 January 2009, <>.




How to Cite

Soehadi, A. W., & Ardianto, E. (2019). The role of participation in memorable tourism experience: a comparative case of cap go meh festival and linggarjati festival in Indonesia. Journal of Economics, Business, and Accountancy Ventura, 22(1), 99–114.